Understanding and Interrupting the Fischer Azaindolization Reaction

Experimental and computational studies pertaining to the Fischer azaindolization reaction are reported. These studies explain why pyridylhydrazines are poorly reactive in Fischer indolization reactions, in addition to the origin of hydrazine substituent effects. Additionally, an interrupted variant of Fischer azaindolization methodology is disclosed, which provides a synthetic entryway into fused azaindoline scaffolds.