Treg and Th17 cells in inflammatory periapical disease: a systematic review

Abstract: The process involved in periapical lesions, which occur as an outcome of pulpal necrosis, is regulated by the immune system including regulatory T cells (Treg) and T helper 17 cell (Th17) responses. The objective of this study was to conduct a frequency systematic review to determine the presence of Treg/Th17 responses and the influence of these cells in the progression of chronic inflammatory periapical lesions in humans. A systematic computerized search was carried out in Pubmed, Medline, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases from their date of inception through the first week of May 2017. In addition, the reference lists of the included articles and the grey literature were hand-searched. Articles that evaluated the presence and influence of Treg/Th17 in the progression of human periapical lesions were included. Study selection and the quality assessment of the included articles (using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) were carried out by two authors. Fifty-seven titles/abstracts were screened and eight studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic review. The included studies showed large variation in the type of periapical lesion assessed, mean age, age range, type of experiment and findings regarding the participation of Th17 and Treg in the status of inflammatory periapical lesions. The studies showed the involvement of Treg in the modulation of the inflammatory response in radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. This systematic review highlights the relationship between Treg and Th17 acting in a subtle balance inhibiting or promoting the progression of human periapical lesions.