Treatment effects on morphology and floral volatiles Boxplots showing the effect of the herbivory and MeJA treatment on morphological traits and the emission of the main VOC classes in <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>.

<p>Herbivory led to a decrease in morphological traits (plant height, flower number, diameter, and spacing, and inflorescence volume) and nitrogenous VOC, while MeJA application led to a significant change in the cumulative emission of total aromatic, fatty acid derivatives (FAD), and nitrogenous VOC. Letters (a, b) above boxes indicate different significance groups (α = 0.05).</p>