Treatment effects on morphology and floral volatiles Boxplots showing the effect of the herbivory and MeJA treatment on morphological traits and the emission of the main VOC classes in B. rapa.

Herbivory led to a decrease in morphological traits (plant height, flower number, diameter, and spacing, and inflorescence volume) and nitrogenous VOC, while MeJA application led to a significant change in the cumulative emission of total aromatic, fatty acid derivatives (FAD), and nitrogenous VOC. Letters (a, b) above boxes indicate different significance groups (α = 0.05).