The interaction of beta-lactoglobulin with ciprofloxacin and kanamycin; a spectroscopic and molecular modeling approach

<p>A vast research has been conducted to find suitable and safe carriers for vital and pH-sensitive drugs including antibiotics. This article reports the use of easily accessible and abundant purified beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG) protein as the potential carrier of widely used Kanamycin (<b>Kana</b>) and Ciprofloxacin (<b>Cip</b>) antibiotics. Spectroscopic techniques (Fluorescence, UV–vis, Circular Dichroism) combined with molecular docking were used to determine the binding mechanism of these drugs. Fluorescence studies showed moderate binding affinity with the calculated binding constants <i>K</i><sub>Cip</sub> = 60.1 (±0.2) × 10<sup>3</sup> M<sup>−1</sup> and <i>K</i><sub>kana</sub> = 2.5 (±0.6) × 10<sup>3</sup> M<sup>−1</sup> with the order of <b>Cip</b> > <b>Kana</b>. Results of UV–vis were consistent with fluorescence measurements and demonstrated a stronger complexation for <b>Cip</b> rather than <b>Kana</b>. The secondary structure of β-LG was preserved upon interaction with <b>Kana</b>; however, a reduction in β-sheet content from 39.1 to 31.9% was convoyed with an increase in α-helix from 12.8 to 20.5% due to complexation of <b>Cip</b>. Molecular docking studies demonstrated that preferred binding sites of these drugs are not the same and several amino acids are involved in stabilizing the interaction. Based on the achieved results, <b>Kana</b> and <b>Cip</b> can spontaneously bind to β-LG and this protein may serve as their transport vehicle.</p>