The Back Stress Behavior Study Analyzed in Residual Stress of Welded Naval Plates in Different Lamination Directions and Different Thermal Contributions

<div><p>The lamination process adds the anisotropy characteristic in the final product. This anisotropy influences the yield strength according to the direction in question, the difference between the value of the yield tension in one direction and the value of the yield tension in another direction referred to as the back stress. Naval plates were welded by the GMAW process in the longitudinal direction to the lamination and in the transverse direction, and with different thermal loads. The residual stresses were calculated by displacement coordinate points method (DCP) and the back stress was found by tensile tests in specimen subjected made with either the longitudinal lamination direction and transverse lamination direction. The material used was ASTM A131 naval steel grade AH-36. The welded plates with greater thermal load in the longitudinal direction presented smaller residual stress in this direction, in relation to the transverse lamination direction. In the welded plates with greater thermal load, in the transverse lamination direction, the displacements in different directions were close, showing that the back stress does not act reversing the displacement (flow). Finally, for the welded plates with lower thermal load, both welded in the longitudinal and transverse direction, the displacements were small. In addition, the back stress did not act reversing such displacements.</p></div>