Table of arthropods and supplementary figures 1 & 2 from Genetics-based interactions of foundation species affect community diversity, stability and network structure

We examined the hypothesis that genetics-based interactions between strongly interacting foundation species, the tree <i>Populus angustifolia</i> and the aphid <i>Pemphigus betae</i>, affect arthropod community diversity, stability and species interaction networks of which little is known. In a 2-year experimental manipulation of the tree and its aphid herbivore four major findings emerged: (i) the interactions of these two species determined the composition of an arthropod community of 139 species; (ii) both tree genotype and aphid presence significantly predicted community diversity; (iii) the presence of aphids on genetically susceptible trees increased the stability of arthropod communities across years; and (iv) the experimental removal of aphids affected community network structure (network degree, modularity and tree genotype contribution to modularity). These findings demonstrate that the interactions of foundation species are genetically based, which in turn significantly contributes to community diversity, stability and species interaction networks. These experiments provide an important step in understanding the evolution of Darwin's ‘entangled bank’, a metaphor that characterizes the complexity and interconnectedness of communities in the wild.