Table 1 from Humans recognize emotional arousal in vocalizations across all classes of terrestrial vertebrates: evidence for acoustic universals

Description of the vocalization sample used in our study and, when applicable, of the published studies in which they are described. In column “Non-vocal indicator/s of arousal” we provide references for studies assessing the link between the observed behavior, and physiological or neural response as indicator of arousal state. * See references for details on methods for acoustic recordings ** In the hourglass treefrog, aggressive calls are longer than advertisement calls in duration. Leading males produce aggressive calls in order to increase the chance of being heard by the female (19) *** Medium arousal calls were classified as expressing a relatively higher level of arousal when paired with a call classified as low arousal (suckling context). When paired with a call classified as high arousal (separation context) medium calls were classified as expressing a lower level of arousal. **** Reported indicators of high arousal in African bush elephants: lifted ears, raised head, lifted tail, temporin secretion (53–55).