Table_1_Effects of Monolaurin on Oral Microbe–Host Transcriptome and Metabolome.DOCX

<p>The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of monolaurin against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and determine their effects on the host transcriptome and metabolome, using an oral cell/bacteria co-culture dual-chamber model to mimic the human periodontium. For this, the Aa, was applied to cross the monolayer of epithelial keratinocytes (OBA-9) to reach the fibroblasts layer (HGF-1) in the basal chamber. The Monolaurin treatments (25 or 50 μM) were added immediately after the inoculation of the dual-chamber with Aa. After 24 h, the transcriptional factors and metabolites produced were quantified in the remaining cell layers (insert and basal chamber) and in supernatant released from the cells. The genes IL-1α, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF analyzed in HGF-1 concentrations showed a decreased expression when treated with both concentration of Monolaurin. In keratinocytes, the genes IL-6, IL-18, and TNF presented a higher expression and the expression of IL-1α decreased when treated with the two cited concentrations. The production of glycerol and pyruvic acid increased, and the 2-deoxytetronic acid NIST, 4-aminobutyric acid, pinitol and glyceric acid, presented lower concentrations because of the treatment with 25 and/or 50 μM of Monolaurin. Use of monolaurin modulated the immune response and metabolite production when administered for 24 h in a dual-chamber model inoculated with A. actinomycetemcomitans. In summary, this study indicates that monolaurin had antimicrobial activity and modulated the host immune response and metabolite production when administered for 24 h in a dual-chamber model inoculated with A. actinomycetemcomitans.</p>