Synthesis and Characterization of Quarteranthene: Elucidating the Characteristics of the Edge State of Graphene Nanoribbons at the Molecular Level

The characteristics of the edge state, which is a peculiar magnetic state in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) that originates from electron–electron correlation in an edge-localized π-state, are investigated by preparing and characterizing quarteranthene molecules. The molecular geometry that was determined from the X-ray analysis is consistent with a zigzag-edge-localized structure of unpaired electrons. The localized electrons are responsible for the peculiar magnetic (room-temperature ferromagnetic correlation), optical (the lowest-lying doubly excited state), and chemical (peroxide bond formation) behaviors. On the basis of these distinguishing properties and a careful consideration of the valence bonding, insight into the edge state of ZGNRs can be gained.