Synthesis, Spectroscopic Properties, and Electropolymerization of Azulene Dyads

Four azulene dyads have been synthesized and studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. A triarylamine, a boron-dipyrromethene (BDP or BODIPY), a porphyrin, and an isoalloxazine moiety have been linked to an extended π electron system at the 2-position of azulene, leading to the dyads 14, respectively. For the synthesis of 14, first 2-(4-ethynyl-phenyl)azulene (EPA) was prepared, which was further reacted with the halogenated chromophores by Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The dyads 14 exhibit strong absorption bands in the visible range, which are dominated by the absorption spectra of the individual subchromophores. Fluorometric studies of 24 revealed that after excitation of the subchromophoric unit attached to the parent azulene moiety, quenching mainly through energy transfer to azulene is effective, whereas possible charge-transfer interactions play only a minor role. Potentiodynamic oxidation of the dyads 14 leads to the formation of polymer films, which are deposited at the electrode. The polymer film derived from 1 was further characterized by spectroelectrochemistry. During positive doping of poly-1, a strong absorption band appears at 13,200 cm–1, which is typical for triarylamine radical cations. This band is overlapping with a broad absorption band in the low-energy region that might be caused by charge-transfer interactions within the polymer.