Susceptibility of GPS-Dependent Complex Systems to Spoofing

<div><p>ABSTRACT GPS-based systems have been widely used in different critical sectors, including civilian and military applications. Despite of being able to provide great benefits, under certain circumstances they show to be highly vulnerable to intentional interferences. In this context, this article aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of different complex GPS-dependent systems to intentional interferences, focusing on the technique known as spoofing. This technique presents a high complexity and a great potential for damaging/deceiving complex systems, besides being difficult to identify and to implement countermeasures. Complex systems, like mobile phones, automobile receivers and aircraft receivers were submitted to different levels of spoofing, in free space and in a semi-anechoic chamber, being corrupted with low power levels of interference.</p></div>