Survey of fish species from plateau streams of the Miranda River Basin in the Upper Paraguay River Region, Brazil

Abstract The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive list of the fish fauna of headwater streams of the Miranda River in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Our primary data set was constructed from sampling of fish using a rectangular sieve, trawl, and gill nets from 2004 to 2015. Our secondary data were derived from published reports conducted in the Miranda River Basin, in addition to taxonomic and distribution data from other studies conducted in the basin. All data were compiled, which in the end encompassed a period from 1999 to 2015. The datasets yielded a total of 143 species, 104 from the primary data (72.7%) and 39 from the secondary data (27.3%). Species were distributed among seven orders and 30 families were found in the Miranda River Basin. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the predominant orders, and the families Characidae and Loricariidae had the greatest number of species. Our results indicate a greater number of species compared to other studies of the Upper Paraguay Basin headwaters, likely due to the longer time frame covered by our primary and secondary datasets.