Supplementary Tables S1-S7 from Sex-specific adaptation and genomic responses to Y chromosome presence in female reproductive and neural tissues

Y chromosomes typically harbour a small number of genes and an abundance of repetitive sequences. In <i>Drosophila,</i> the Y chromosome comprises multimegabase long segments of repetitive DNA and a handful of protein-coding genes. In mammals, the Y chromosome also harbours a disproportionally high abundance of repeats. Here, we build on a <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> model in which the Y chromosome is decoupled from sexual determination. The genotypes were genetically identical for the autosomes, X chromosome, and mitochondria, but differ by the presence or dose of the Y chromosome. Addition of an extra Y chromosome had limited impact in males. However, the presence of a Y chromosome in females induced a disproportionate response in genes expressed in the ovaries as well as genes encoded by the mitochondrial genome. Furthermore, the data revealed significant consequences of Y chromosome presence in larvae neuronal tissue. This included the repression of genes implicated in reproductive behaviour, courtship, mating and synaptic function. Our findings exhibit the Y chromosome as a hotspot for sex-specific adaptation. They suggest a role of natural selection on Y-linked genetic elements exerting impacts on sex-specific tissues as well as somatic tissues shared by males and females.