Supplementary Material for: The p.G146A and p.P125P Polymorphisms in the Steroidogenic Factor-1 <b><i>(SF-1)</i></b> Gene Do Not Affect the Risk for Hypospadias in Caucasians

Hypospadias is a frequent congenital malformation in boys and is characterized by incomplete fusion of the urethral folds. The steroidogenic factor-1 <i>(SF-1, NR5A1)</i> gene plays a key role in hypothalamic-pituitary-steroidogenic organ development, and has previously been reported to be mutated in individuals with 46,XY disorder of sex development. Here, we investigated the role of <i>SF-1</i> in hypospadias, a milder form of 46,XY disorder of sex development. We performed direct sequencing analysis of the <i>SF-1</i> gene in 2 male Caucasian twins exhibiting very severe hypospadias, and in 95 Caucasian boys with mild and severe hypospadias. We further extended the analysis by investigating 332 mild and severe hypospadias cases and 422 male controls using TaqMan assays. Our sequencing revealed a novel heterozygous p.R313H (c.938G>A) missense mutation in each twin, and no mutations in the 95 Caucasian cases. Instead, a missense p.G146A (c.437G>C), and a silent known p.P125P (c.375C>T) polymorphism, respectively, was found in several of the latter cases. Further investigation of the 2 polymorphisms in the larger material of cases and controls showed no significant genotypic or allelic association. In conclusion, the <i>SF-1</i> gene may not play a significant role in the development of hypospadias in Caucasians.