Supplementary Material for: The Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms in Frontotemporal Dementia: A Meta-Analysis

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Depression is common in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia and is associated with poorer outcomes; however, less is known about the impact of depression on frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of diagnostic methods and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in FTD. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> PubMed, EMBASE and PsychINFO were queried for ‘depression' and/or ‘depressive mood' in behavioral- and language-variant FTD. The prevalence and diagnosis of depressive symptoms were extracted from relevant studies and the results pooled using a random-effects model. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We included 29 studies in this meta-analysis, with sample sizes ranging from 3 to 73 (n = 870). The omnibus estimated event rate of depressed mood was 0.334 (33%; 95% CI: 0.268-0.407). Symptoms were most commonly assessed via standardized neuropsychiatric rating scales, with other methods including subjective caregiver reports and chart reviews. The study results were heterogeneous due to the variability in diagnostic methods. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Depressive symptoms similar to those in other dementias are commonly detected in FTD. However, the diagnostic methods are heterogeneous, and symptoms of depression often overlap with manifestations of FTD. Having a standardized diagnostic approach to depression in FTD will greatly facilitate future research in this area.