Supplementary Material for: The Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins PGRPLA and PGRPLB Regulate Anopheles Immunity to Bacteria and Affect Infection by Plasmodium

<p>Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) form a family of immune regulators that is conserved from insects to mammals. In the malaria vector mosquito <i>Anopheles</i><i>coluzzii</i>, the peptidoglycan receptor PGRPLC activates the immune-deficiency (Imd) pathway limiting both the microbiota load and <i>Plasmodium</i> infection. Here, we carried out an RNA interference screen to examine the role of all 7 <i>Anopheles</i> PGRPs in infections with <i>Plasmodium berghei</i> and <i>P. falciparum</i>. We show that, in addition to PGRPLC, PGRPLA and PGRPS2/PGRPS3 also participate in antiparasitic defenses, and that PGRPLB promotes mosquito permissiveness to <i>P. falciparum</i>. We also demonstrate that following a mosquito blood feeding, which promotes growth of the gut microbiota, PGRPLA and PGRPLB positively and negatively regulate the activation of the Imd pathway, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PGRPs are important regulators of the mosquito epithelial immunity and vector competence.</p>