Supplementary Material for: The Landscape of Non-Coding RNA in an Adult Pig Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for adult metabolic syndrome, but how this disease is regulated by lncRNAs and circRNAs remains elusive. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Here, we employed adult IUGR and normal pigs as models to evaluate the expression of various global lncRNAs and circRNAs in pig livers using RNA-seq. <b><i>Results:</i></b> In total, we obtained 1,162 million raw reads of approximately 104.54 Gb high quality data. After a strict five-step filtering process, 3,368 lncRNAs were identified, including 300 differentially expressed lncRNAs (<i>p</i> < 0.05) in the IUGR group relative to the control group. The cis-regulatory analysis identified target genes that were enriched in specific GO terms and pathways (<i>p</i> < 0.05), including amino acid metabolism, oxidoreductase activity, PPAR signaling pathway, and insulin signaling pathway. These are closely related to the observed phenotypes of increased gluconeogenesis and impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in adulthood of the IUGR group. Additionally, we also identified 403 circRNAs, of which 44 were differentially expressed (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Interestingly, our results identified ATF4-miR214-circRNA7964 and TCF7-miR22-3p-circRNA16347 as two competing endogenous networks, which were closely associated with the observed increase in hepatic gluconeogenesis in the IUGR group. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Together, this study reveals a multitude of candidate lncRNAs and circRNAs involved in the development of IUGR pigs, which could facilitate further researches on the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome.

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