Supplementary Material for: The Impact of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-1β Levels and Polymorphisms on Long-Term Stroke Outcomes

<b><i>Background:</i></b> The accuracy of predictions regarding disability that sets in after stroke could be improved by using blood biomarker measurements. This study aimed to investigate the roles of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β concentrations and polymorphisms in stroke outcomes. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> In total, 286 patients were evaluated at the time of admission and at 2 weeks after stroke, and 222 of these patients (78%) were followed up for 1 year to evaluate the consequences of stroke during both the acute and chronic stages. Stroke outcomes were dichotomized into good and poor using the modified Rankin Scale. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The association of TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations and their corresponding genotypes with stroke outcomes was investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Higher TNF-α levels were associated with poor outcomes 1 year after stroke in the presence of the –850<i>T</i> and –308<i>A</i> alleles, and IL-1β levels were associated with poor 1-year stroke outcomes in the presence of the –511<i>T</i> and +3953<i>T</i> alleles. No such associations were found at 2 weeks after stroke. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> These data provide evidence that serum TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations are related to poor long-term outcomes after stroke in the presence of particular alleles.