Supplementary Material for: The Epigenetic Regulation of GATA4-Dependent Brain Natriuretic Peptide Expression during Alcohol Withdrawal

<p><b><i>Objective:</i></b> Natriuretic peptides participate in the collection of metabolic effects during alcohol withdrawal. Having witnessed modulation of other natriuretic peptides in alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal, we were interested in the relation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) methylation with protein expression and craving in this longitudinal study. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Ninety-nine male patients were compared to 101 healthy controls concerning epigenetic regulation and protein expression during detoxification treatment. <b><i>Results:</i></b> With BNP expression being GATA4 dependent, we observed a correlation of GATA4 binding site methylation and protein expression. BNP serum levels and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale scores are significantly decreased during withdrawal. Focusing on the two CpGs that are between GATA transcription factor binding sites, statistical analysis revealed a reversely proportional methylation pattern, significantly increasing with ongoing detoxification and thereby supporting the observed serum level changes. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Without the functional knowledge about regulation of BNP expression via the GATA transcription factor, it would have been easy to take the mean results of the global CpG data and propose a direct relationship between methylation and expression. Thus, these findings are a voice for functionally and mechanistically approved results. There was no causal relationship between protein expression levels and epigenetic changes. Further research is needed which includes protein expression and other approaches.</p>