Supplementary Material for: The Distribution of Substance P and Kisspeptin in the Mediobasal Hypothalamus of the Male Rhesus Monkey and a Comparison of Intravenous Administration of These Peptides to Release GnRH as Reflected by LH Secretion

2015-11-19T00:00:00Z (GMT) by Kalil B. Ramaswamy S. Plant T.M.
Substance P (SP) was recently reported to be expressed in human kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons and to enhance KNDy neuron excitability in the mouse hypothalamus. We therefore examined (1) interactions of SP and kisspeptin in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult male rhesus monkeys using immunofluorescence, and (2) the ability of SP to induce LH release in GnRH-primed, agonadal juvenile male monkeys. SP cell bodies were observed only occasionally in the arcuate nucleus (Arc), but more frequently dorsal to the Arc in the region of the premammillary nucleus. Castration resulted in an increase in the number of SP cell bodies in the Arc but not in the other regions. SP fibers innervated the Arc, where they were found in close apposition with kisspeptin perikarya in the periphery of this nucleus. Beaded SP axons projected to the median eminence, where they terminated in the external layer and intermingled with beaded kisspeptin axons. Colocalization of the two peptides, however, was not observed. Although close apposition between SP fibers and kisspeptin neurons suggest a role for SP in modulating GnRH pulse generator activity, i.v. injections of SP failed to elicit release of GnRH (as reflected by LH) in the juvenile monkey. Although the finding of structural interactions between SP and kisspeptin neurons is consistent with the notion that this tachykinin may be involved in regulating pulsatile GnRH release, the apparent absence of expression of SP in KNDy neurons suggests that this peptide is unlikely to be a fundamental component of the primate GnRH pulse generator.