Supplementary Material for: The Combined Effects of Genetic Variation in the CNDP1 and CNDP2 Genes and Dietary Carbohydrate and Carotene Intake on Obesity Risk

<p><b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> It is possible that carnosinase (CNDP1) and cellular nonspecific dipeptidase (CNDP2) have important roles in protecting cells and tissues against the damage of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and subsequent inflammation are key factors in the development of common chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity. We aimed to investigate the combined effects of genetic variations in <i>CNDP1</i> and <i>CNDP2</i> and dietary carbohydrate and carotene intake on obesity risk. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A total of 1,059 Japanese men were randomly selected from participants who visited a medical center for routine medical checkups. We analyzed the relationships between the genotypes of 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs12605520, rs7244647, rs4891558, and rs17089368) in the <i>CNDP1/CNDP2 </i>locus and body mass index or prevalence of obesity/overweight taking into account dietary carbohydrate and carotene intake. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We found that 2 SNPs (rs7244647 in <i>CNDP1</i> and rs4891558 in <i>CNDP2</i>) were associated with obesity risk. In addition, these associations were observed only in the group with high carbohydrate and low carotene intake but not in the group with low carbohydrate and high carotene intake. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Our findings indicate that the combination of genetic variations in <i>CNDP1 </i>and<i> CNDP2</i> and dietary carbohydrate/carotene intake modulate obesity risk.</p>