Supplementary Material for: Skin Biopsies Demonstrate Site-Specific Endothelial Activation in Mouse Models of Sepsis

<i>Background/Aims:</i> Skin biopsies allow for direct phenotyping of the endothelium in clinical settings. <i>Objectives:</i> We hypothesize that in murine sepsis endothelial activation is manifested by changes in protein and mRNA expression in skin biopsies, and that such alterations differ from other organs. <i>Methods:</i> In two mouse models of sepsis [endotoxemia and cecal ligation puncture (CLP)], we measured circulating levels of endothelial biomarkers, quantitated mRNA expression of activation markers and assayed for protein expression using immunohistochemistry. <i>Results:</i> Endotoxemic mice demonstrated increased circulating levels of sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sP-selectin at 24 h, while CLP was associated with increased levels of sE-selectin alone. In real-time PCR, mRNA levels for P-selectin, ICAM-1 and PAI-1 were increased in skin from endotoxemic mice. In CLP, mRNA levels for P-selectin, ICAM-1, E-selectin and PAI-1 were elevated, while VCAM-1 expression was reduced in skin. Most, but not all of these changes correlated with alterations in immunohistochemical staining. Expression patterns in skin differed from those in brain, heart, and lung. <i>Conclusions:</i> Skin biopsies demonstrated endothelial cell activation during sepsis. The expression patterns differed by type of sepsis model and between vascular beds of skin, brain, heart, and lung, providing a foundation for identifying skin microvascular-bed-specific molecule signatures.