Supplementary Material for: Short-Term Effects of Phenobarbitone on Electrographic Seizures in Neonates

<br><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Phenobarbitone is the most common first-line anti-seizure drug and is effective in approximately 50% of all neonatal seizures. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> To describe the response of electrographic seizures to the administration of intravenous phenobarbitone in neonates using seizure burden analysis techniques. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Multi-channel conventional EEG, reviewed by experts, was used to determine the electrographic seizure burden in hourly epochs. The maximum seizure burden evaluated 1 h before each phenobarbitone dose (T<sub>-1</sub>) was compared to seizure burden in periods of increasing duration after each phenobarbitone dose had been administered (T<sub>+1</sub>, T<sub>+2</sub> to seizure offset). Differences were analysed using linear mixed models and summarized as means and 95% CI. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Nineteen neonates had electrographic seizures and met the inclusion criteria for the study. Thirty-one doses were studied. The maximum seizure burden was significantly reduced 1 h after the administration of phenobarbitone (T<sub>+1</sub>) [-14.0 min/h (95% CI: -19.6, -8.5); p < 0.001]. The percentage reduction was 74% (IQR: 36-100). This reduction was temporary and not significant within 4 h of administrating phenobarbitone. Subgroup analysis showed that only phenobarbitone doses at 20 mg/kg resulted in a significant reduction in the maximum seizure burden from T<sub>-1</sub> to T<sub>+1</sub> (p = 0.002). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Phenobarbitone significantly reduced seizures within 1 h of administration as assessed with continuous multi-channel EEG monitoring in neonates. The reduction was not permanent and seizures were likely to return within 4 h of treatment.