Supplementary Material for: S100A8/A9 (Calprotectin), Interleukin-6, and C-Reactive Protein in Obesity and Diabetes before and after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

Background: In obesity, which is a major contributor to insulin resistance and diabetes, the circulating level of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) is elevated and declines after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). However, studies on S100A8/A9 and the pathophysiological mechanisms in insulin resistance and diabetes are few and contradictory. Methods: We studied 48 subjects who underwent RYGB, comprising a non-diabetic control group and two diabetic groups in whom diabetes either regressed or persisted, 6-12 months post-surgically. S100A8/A9, interleukin 6 (IL-6) as well as other inflammatory and diabetes-related markers were measured pre- and post-surgically. Results: Significant and similar decreases of BMI were found in all groups. S100A8/A9 and IL-6 decreased significantly in the group with diabetes remission and in the control group, but not in the group with persistent diabetes. The relative changes in S100A8/A9 and IL-6 correlated significantly (r = 0.905, p = 0.005) only in the group with persistent diabetes. In contrast, leukocyte count and C-reactive protein correlated significantly to S100A8/A9 only in the control group. Conclusion: Our study is suggestive of S100A8/A9 and IL-6 being related to a persistent diabetes status post-surgically and of different pathophysiological mechanisms being involved in the post-surgical changes in the three groups, despite similar decreases in BMI.