Supplementary Material for: Replication of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Is Inhibited by the Host Defense Molecule Viperin

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important viral pathogen of otitis media, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. As infection of the upper airways is a precondition for the development of these diseases, understanding RSV pathogenesis and the host response induced by RSV in this niche may enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies against this virus. We have used a microarray approach and showed that expression of the gene that encodes the antiviral protein viperin was significantly upregulated in the chinchilla nasopharynx up to 1 week after RSV challenge. Overexpression of human viperin in vitro diminished the ability of RSV to infect HeLa or A549 cells. Furthermore, transduction of the chinchilla airways with a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector that encodes <i>viperin</i> resulted in reduced titers of RSV in the nasopharyngeal lavage fluid. Collectively, these data indicated that viperin plays a significant role in the innate immune defense against RSV.