Supplementary Material for: Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Contributes to Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiovascular Remodeling and Inflammation

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. It also leads to the activation of coagulation. The coagulation protease thrombin induces cellular responses by activating protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). We investigated whether PAR-1 contributes to Ang II-induced cardiovascular remodeling and inflammation. <b><i>Methods and Results:</i></b> PAR-1<sup>+/+</sup> (wild-type; WT) and PAR-1<sup>-/-</sup> mice were infused with Ang II (600 ng/kg/min) for up to 4 weeks. In WT mice, this dose of Ang II did not cause a significant increase in blood pressure but it did cause pathological changes in both the aorta and the heart. Ang II infusion resulted in vascular remodeling of the aorta, demonstrated by a significant increase in medial wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis. Importantly, both parameters were significantly attenuated by PAR-1 deficiency. Furthermore, perivascular fibrosis around coronary vessels was reduced in Ang II-treated PAR-1<sup>-/-</sup> mice compared to WT mice. In addition, PAR-1 deficiency significantly attenuated Ang II induction of inflammatory cytokines and profibrotic genes in the aortas compared to WT mice. Finally, PAR-1 deficiency had no effect on Ang II-induced heart hypertrophy. However, the heart function measured by fractional shortening was less impaired in PAR-1<sup>-/-</sup> mice than in WT mice. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our data indicate that PAR-1 plays a significant role in cardiovascular remodeling mediated by a blood pressure-independent action of Ang II.</p>