Supplementary Material for: Prognostic Factors and Long-Term Outcome of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Ki-67 Index Shows a Greater Impact on Survival than Disease Stage. The Large Experience of the Spanish National Tumor Registry (RGETNE)

Introduction: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) are uncommon neoplasms with a wide spectrum of clinical behavior. The objective of this study was to assess in a large cohort of patients the relative impact of prognostic factors on survival. Methods: From June 2001 through October 2010, 1,271 patients were prospectively registered online ( at the Spanish National Cancer Registry for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (RGETNE) by participating centers. Clinical and histopathological features were assessed as potential prognostic factors by uni- and multivariate analyses. Results: Of 483 PNENs, 171 (35%) were functional (F) and 312 (65%) non-functional (NF). NF-PNENs were associated with a higher incidence of histological features denoting more aggressive disease, such as poor tumor differentiation, Ki-67 >20%, or vascular invasion (NF- vs. F-PNENs, respectively, p < 0.05). Nevertheless, functionality was not a significant predictor of survival (p = 0.19). Stage at diagnosis, Ki-67 index, tumor differentiation and surgical resection of the primary tumor were all significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis. However, Ki-67 (>20 vs. ≤2%) (hazard ratio (HR) 2.21, p = 0.01) and surgical resection (yes vs. no) (HR 0.92, p = 0.001) were the only independent predictors of survival in multivariate analysis. Among patients who underwent surgery, high Ki-67 index (HR 10.37, p = 0.02) and poor differentiation (HR 8.16, p = 0.03) were the only independent predictors of clinical outcome. Conclusion: Ki-67 index and tumor differentiation are key prognostic factors influencing survival of patients with PNENs and, in contrast to what it is observed for other solid malignancies, they seem to have a greater impact on survival than the extent of disease. This should be borne in mind by physicians in order to appropriately tailor therapeutic strategies and surveillance of these patients.