Supplementary Material for: Phenotyping of Tianma-Stimulated Differentiated Rat Neuronal B104 Cells by Quantitative Proteomics

<i>Gastrodia elata blume</i> (tianma) is a traditional Chinese herb often used in the treatment of convulsions, headaches, and hypertension. Although interest in neuronal-related actions of tianma is increasing, minimal studies have been conducted to determine its specific effects on neuronal cells. This study was designed to examine the effects of tianma on the metabolism in differentiated neuroblastoma cells using the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology. Stimulation of these cells with tianma caused changes in the expression of 38 proteins that were subsequently classified according to their physiological functions and association with neurodegenerative diseases. We identified six proteins with altered functional activities in neurodegenerative disease states that were modulated by tianma: triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi1), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (Ppia), neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (Ncam1), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (Uchl1), septin-2 (Sept2) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90aa1). We postulate that tianma mediates its neuroprotective effects via upregulation of Ncam1, Hsp90aa1, Tpi1 and Ppia while downregulating Sept2 and Uchl1. These changes in protein expression aid in the restoration of the intracellular environment to a metabolically balanced state, promoting cell survival. Based on these observed data, we conclude that tianma has therapeutic potential, especially for neurodegenerative diseases.