Supplementary Material for: Patiromer to Enable Spironolactone Use in the Treatment of Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Rationale and Design of the AMBER Study

<b><i>Background:</i></b> While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in resistant hypertension (RHTN), prior studies ­evaluating mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists excluded patients with reduced kidney function due to risk of hyperkalemia. AMBER (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03071263) will evaluate if the potassium-binding polymer patiromer used concomitantly with spironolactone in patients with RHTN and CKD prevents hyperkalemia and allows more persistent spironolactone use for hypertension management. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group 12-week study of patiromer and spironolactone versus placebo and spironolactone in patients with uncontrolled RHTN and CKD. RHTN is defined as unattended systolic automated office blood pressure (AOBP) of ­135–160 mm Hg during screening despite taking ≥3 antihypertensives, including a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker ­(unless not tolerated or contraindicated). The CKD inclusion criterion is an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. Screening serum potassium must be 4.3–5.1 mEq/L. The primary efficacy endpoint is the between-group difference (spironolactone plus patiromer versus spironolactone plus placebo) in the proportion of patients remaining on spironolactone at Week 12. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Baseline characteristics have been analyzed as of March 2018 for 146 (of a targeted 290) patients. Mean (SD) baseline age is 69.3 (10.9) years; 52.1% are male, 99.3% White, and 47.3% have diabetes. Mean (SD) baseline serum potassium is 4.68 (0.25) mEq/L, systolic AOBP is 144.3 (6.8) mm Hg, eGFR is 35.7 (7.7) mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> AMBER will define the ability of patiromer to facilitate the use of spironolactone, an effective antihypertensive therapy for patients with RHTN and CKD.