Supplementary Material for: Panax Quinquefolium Saponins Attenuate Myocardial Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Ischemia

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> Previous studies in rat models of myocardial ischemia showed that Panax quinquefolium saponins (PQS) could attenuate ischemic/reperfusion injury, increase vessel density and improve cardiac function. In the current study, we examined whether PQS could attenuate myocardial dysfunction in a swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia (CMI). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> CMI was established in Bama mini-pigs by placing amroid constrictor on the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Starting from 2 months after the surgery, pigs randomly received PQS (30 mg/kg/day), atorvastatin (1.5 mg/kg/day), or no drug for one month (n=6). A group of pigs receiving sham surgery was included as an additional control. Glucose utilization was assessed with positron emission tomography-computer tomography (PET-CT). Cardiac function was assessed with echocardiography. Myocyte size, nuclear density, and arteriolar density were examined in tissue section obtained from the ischemia area. Potential molecular targets of PQS were identified using proteomic analysis with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTARQ) and network pharmacology. <b><i>Results:</i></b> In comparison to the sham controls, pigs implanted with ameroid constrictor had decreased ventricular wall motion, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and glucose utilization. PQS significantly increased cardiac function and glucose utilization. Arteriole density and myocyte nuclear density were increased. Myocyte diameter was decreased. PQS also attenuated the CMI-induced change of protein expression profile. The effects of atorvastatin were generally similar to that of PQS. However, PQS attenuated the reduction of left ventricular systolic WT induced by CMI more robustly than atorvastatin. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> The results from the current study supports the use of PQS in patients with coronary artery disease.