Supplementary Material for: PPARγ2 Gene Pro12Ala and PPARα Gene Leu162Val Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Interact with Dietary Intake of Fat in Determination of Plasma Lipid Concentrations

<i>Background/Aims:</i> The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, activated by unsaturated fatty acids. We investigated independent and interactive effects of PPARγ2 gene <i>PPARG </i>Pro12Ala (rs1801282) andPPARαgene<i> PPARA </i>Leu162Val (rs1800206) genotypes with dietary intake of fatty acids on concentrations of plasma lipids in subjects of whom 47.5% had metabolic syndrome. <i>Methods:</i> The RISCK study is a parallel design, randomised controlled trial. Plasma lipids were quantified at baseline after a 4-week high saturated fatty acids diet and after three parallel 24-week interventions with reference (high saturated fatty acids), high monounsaturated fatty acids and low-fat diets. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 466 subjects. <i>Results:</i> At baseline, the<i> PPARG</i> Ala12allele was associated with increased plasma total cholesterol (n = 378; p = 0.04), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.05) and apoB (p =0.05) after adjustment for age, gender and ethnicity. At baseline, <i>PPARA</i> Leu162Val × <i>PPARG</i> Pro12Ala genotype interaction did not significantly influence plasma lipid concentrations. After dietary intervention, gene-gene interaction significantly influenced LDL cholesterol (p =0.0002) and small dense LDL as a proportion of LDL (p = 0.005) after adjustments. <i>Conclusions:</i> Interaction between <i>PPARG </i>Pro12Ala and <i>PPARA</i> Leu162Valgenotypes may influence plasma LDL cholesterol concentration and the proportion as small dense LDL after a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet.