Supplementary Material for: PPARγ2 Gene Pro12Ala and PPARα Gene Leu162Val Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Interact with Dietary Intake of Fat in Determination of Plasma Lipid Concentrations

Background/Aims: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, activated by unsaturated fatty acids. We investigated independent and interactive effects of PPARγ2 gene PPARG Pro12Ala (rs1801282) andPPARαgene PPARA Leu162Val (rs1800206) genotypes with dietary intake of fatty acids on concentrations of plasma lipids in subjects of whom 47.5% had metabolic syndrome. Methods: The RISCK study is a parallel design, randomised controlled trial. Plasma lipids were quantified at baseline after a 4-week high saturated fatty acids diet and after three parallel 24-week interventions with reference (high saturated fatty acids), high monounsaturated fatty acids and low-fat diets. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 466 subjects. Results: At baseline, the PPARG Ala12allele was associated with increased plasma total cholesterol (n = 378; p = 0.04), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.05) and apoB (p =0.05) after adjustment for age, gender and ethnicity. At baseline, PPARA Leu162Val × PPARG Pro12Ala genotype interaction did not significantly influence plasma lipid concentrations. After dietary intervention, gene-gene interaction significantly influenced LDL cholesterol (p =0.0002) and small dense LDL as a proportion of LDL (p = 0.005) after adjustments. Conclusions: Interaction between PPARG Pro12Ala and PPARA Leu162Valgenotypes may influence plasma LDL cholesterol concentration and the proportion as small dense LDL after a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet.