Supplementary Material for: Optimizing Cerebral Autoregulation May Decrease Neonatal Regional Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We examined whether hemodynamic goals that support autoregulation are associated with decreased brain injury and whether these relationships are affected by birth asphyxia or vary by anatomic region. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Neonates cooled for HIE received near-infrared spectroscopy autoregulation monitoring to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulatory function (MAP<sub>OPT</sub>). Blood pressure deviation from MAP<sub>OPT</sub> was correlated with brain injury on MRI after adjusting for the effects of arterial carbon dioxide, vasopressors, seizures, and birth asphyxia severity. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Blood pressure deviation from MAP<sub>OPT</sub> related to neurologic injury in several regions independent of birth asphyxia severity. Greater duration and deviation of blood pressure below MAP<sub>OPT</sub> were associated with greater injury in the paracentral gyri and white matter. Blood pressure within MAP<sub>OPT</sub> related to lesser injury in the white matter, putamen and globus pallidus, and brain stem. Finally, blood pressures that exceeded MAP<sub>OPT</sub> were associated with reduced injury in the paracentral gyri. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Blood pressure deviation from optimal autoregulatory vasoreactivity was associated with MRI markers of brain injury that, in many regions, were independent of the initial birth asphyxia. Targeting hemodynamic ranges to optimize autoregulation has potential as an adjunctive therapy to hypothermia for HIE.</p>