Supplementary Material for: Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among the Indigenous and Immigrant Pakistani Population: A Systematic Review

<b><i>Aim:</i></b> The aim of this study was to systematically describe the gender and ethnic differences regarding the prevalence of general/central obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia among the indigenous and immigrant Pakistani communities. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The search engine used was PubMed, supplemented with regional data from the Medical Institutes of Pakistan. The focus was on the adult Pakistani population (18 years and older). <b><i>Results:</i></b> We found only 7 studies among the immigrant Pakistani community and 24 studies among the indigenous Pakistani community. The studies had limitations such as low participation rates and use of self-reported data. There is a higher prevalence of central obesity among women (42.2%) than among men (14.7%) (National Health Survey of Pakistan). Certain ethnicities such as Muhajir and Baluchis showed a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors when compared to other ethnicities in the indigenous Pakistani population. The results also indicate that the prevalence of obesity is 10-20% higher among the immigrant Pakistanis than in the indigenous Pakistanis. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> The relatively high prevalence of obesity and associated CVD risk factors (especially in women) among both indigenous and immigrant Pakistani populations require the attention of the healthcare professionals and policy makers, both inside and outside Pakistan.