Supplementary Material for: Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Is an Independent Predictor for In-Hospital Mortality in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

<p><b><i>Background and Purpose:</i></b> Stroke-associated immunosuppression and inflammation are increasingly recognized as factors that trigger infections and thus, potentially influence the outcome after stroke. Several studies demonstrated that elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a significant predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke. However, little is known about the impact of NLR on short-term mortality in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This observational study included 855 consecutive ICH-patients. Patient demographics, clinical, laboratory, and in-hospital measures as well as neuroradiological data were retrieved from institutional databases. Functional 3-months-outcome was assessed and categorized as favorable (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0-3) and unfavorable (mRS 4-6). We (i) studied the natural course of NLR in ICH, (ii) analyzed parameters associated with NLR on admission (NLROA), and (iii) evaluated the clinical impact of NLR on mortality and functional outcome. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The median NLROA of the entire cohort was 4.66 and it remained stable during the entire hospital stay. Patients with NLR ≥4.66 showed significant associations with poorer neurological status (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] 18 [9-32] vs. 10 [4-21]; <i>p</i> < 0.001), larger hematoma volume on admission (17.6 [6.9-47.7] vs. 10.6 [3.8-31.7] mL; <i>p</i> = 0.001), and more frequently unfavorable outcome (mRS 4-6 at 3 months: 317/427 [74.2%] vs. 275/428 [64.3%]; <i>p</i> = 0.002). Patients with an NLR under the 25th percentile (NLR <2.606) - compared to patients with NLR >2.606 - presented with a better clinical status (NIHSS 12 [5-21] vs. 15 [6-28]; <i>p</i> = 0.005), lower hematoma volumes on admission (10.6 [3.6-30.1] vs. 15.1 [5.7-42.3] mL; <i>p</i> = 0.004) and showed a better functional outcome (3 months mRS 0-3: 82/214 [38.3%] vs. 185/641 [28.9%]; <i>p</i> = 0.009). Patients associated with high NLR (≥8.508 = above 75th-percentile) showed the worst neurological status on admission (NIHSS 21 [12-32] vs. 12 [5-23]; <i>p</i> < 0.001), larger hematoma volumes (21.0 [8.6-48.8] vs. 12.2 [4.1-34.9] mL; <i>p</i> < 0.001), and higher proportions of unfavorable functional outcome at 3 months (mRS 4-6: 173/214 vs. 418/641; <i>p</i> < 0.001). Further, NLR was linked to more frequently occurring infectious complications (pneumonia 107/214 vs. 240/641; <i>p</i> = 0.001, sepsis: 78/214 vs. 116/641; <i>p</i> < 0.001), and increased c-reactive-protein levels on admission (<i>p</i> < 0.001; <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.064). Adjusting for the above-mentioned baseline confounders, multivariable logistic analyses revealed independent associations of NLROA with in-hospital mortality (OR 0.967, 95% CI 0.939-0.997; <i>p</i> = 0.029). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> NLR represents an independent parameter associated with increased mortality in ICH patients. Stroke physicians should focus intensely on patients with increased NLR, as these patients appear to represent a population at risk for infectious complications and increased short-mortality. Whether these patients with elevated NLR may benefit from a close monitoring and specially designed therapies should be investigated in future studies.</p>