Supplementary Material for: National Trends in Emergency Room Visits of Dialysis Patients for Adverse Drug Reactions
2018-06-12T12:44:38Z (GMT) by
<b><i>Background:</i></b> Various medications are cleared by the kidneys, therefore patients with impaired renal function, especially dialysis patients are at risk for adverse drug events (ADEs). There are limited studies on ADEs in maintenance dialysis patients. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We utilized a nationally representative database, the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, from 2008 to 2013, to compare emergency department (ED) visits for dialysis and propensity matched non-dialysis patients. Log binomial regression was used to calculate relative risk of hospital admission and logistic regression to calculate ORs for in-hospital mortality while adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. <b><i>Results:</i></b> While ED visits for ADEs decreased in both groups, they were over 10-fold higher in dialysis patients than non-dialysis patients (65.8–88.5 per 1,000 patients vs. 4.6–5.4 per 1,000 patients respectively, <i>p</i> < 0.001). The top medication category associated with ED visits for ADEs in dialysis patients is agents primarily affecting blood constituents, which has increased. After propensity matching, patient admission was higher in dialysis patients than non-dialysis patients, (88 vs. 76%, <i>p</i> < 0.001). Dialysis was associated with a 3% increase in risk of admission and 3 times the odds of in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 3, 95% CI 2.7–2.3.3). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> ED visits for ADEs are substantially higher in dialysis patients than non-dialysis patients. In dialysis patients, ADEs associated with agents primarily affecting blood constituents are on the rise. ED visits for ADEs in dialysis patients have higher inpatient admissions and in-hospital mortality. Further studies are needed to identify and implement measures aimed at reducing ADEs in dialysis patients.