Supplementary Material for: Morus alba L. Stem Extract Attenuates Pain and Articular Cartilage Damage in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection-Induced Rat Model of Osteoarthritis

<b><i>Aim:</i></b> This study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of <i>Morus alba</i> stem extract as well as its cartilage protective effect in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-induced rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The anti-nociceptive effect of this plant extract was determined by measuring hind limb weight bearing, while the severity of cartilage damage to the knee joints was evaluated using the modified Mankin grading system. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Oral administration of <i>M. alba</i> stem extract (56 and 560 mg/kg) significantly attenuated joint pain as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the values of percent weight borne on the operated hind limb for the OA-induced groups that received <i>M. alba</i> stem extract at 56 and 560 mg/kg when compared to those of the vehicle-treated OA-induced group. In addition, a significant improvement in the Mankin score was also observed in rats treated with 560 mg/kg<i> M. alba</i> stem extract, which was in agreement with its pain-relieving effect. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> The results showed that <i>M. alba</i> stem extract exhibited an anti-nociceptive effect as well as cartilage protection in the ACLT-induced rat model of OA, supporting its potential use as a therapeutic treatment for OA.