Supplementary Material for: Mania and Stroke: A Systematic Review

<i>Background:</i> Mania is a rare consequence of stroke and according to the sparse published information it is difficult to describe its demographic, clinical and prognostic characteristics. <i>Methods:</i> We performed a systematic review of all cases of mania and stroke to describe those characteristics. Studies were identified from comprehensive searches of electronic databases, reference lists of the studies collected and handbooks. Two authors independently assessed abstracts, and collected and extracted data. <i>Results:</i> From 265 abstracts, 139 were potentially relevant. For the first analysis, which tries to answer the clinical question of the relationship between mania and stroke, 49 studies met the inclusion criteria and described 74 cases. For the second analysis, we looked for an explicit temporal and causal relationship between manic symptoms and stroke, and selected 32 studies describing 49 cases. In both analyses, the typical patient was male, without a personal or family history of psychiatric disorder, with at least one vascular risk factor, but without subcortical atrophy and had suffered a right cerebral infarct. The majority of patients (92%) presented elevated mood as the first symptom. The other frequent symptoms were an increased rate or amount of speech (71%), insomnia (69%) and agitation (63%). <i>Conclusions:</i> Post-stroke mania should be considered in any manic patient who presents concomitant neurological focal deficits and is older than expected for the onset of primary mania. The results of a systematic study of mania in acute stroke with subsequent follow-up and data from diffusion MR or perfusion CT in a multicenter study with a central database would be relevant.

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