Supplementary Material for: Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Very-Early Onset Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

<i>Background:</i> Long-term clinical outcomes in children with very-early onset (VEO; diagnosis in utero or within the first 18 months of life) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are currently not well understood. We conducted a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to assess the association between VEO status and adverse clinical outcomes. <i>Methods:</i> Seventy patients with VEO-ADPKD matched (by year of birth, sex and race/ethnicity) to 70 patients with non-VEO-ADPKD who participated in research at the University of Colorado were studied. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The predictor was VEO status, and outcomes were progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), development of hypertension, progression to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73 m2), glomerular hyperfiltration (eGFR ≥140 ml/min/1.73 m2) and height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) measured by MRI ≥600 ml/m. <i>Results:</i> Median follow-up was until 16.0 years of age. There were only 4 ESRD events during the follow-up period, all in the VEO group (p < 0.05). VEO patients were more likely to develop hypertension (hazard ratio, HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.86-5.34; p < 0.0001) and to progress to eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.01-3.84; p < 0.05) than non-VEO patients. There was no difference between groups in the development of glomerular hyperfiltration (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.56-1.42; p = 0.62). There were only 7 patients who progressed to htTKV ≥600 ml/m, 4 in the VEO group and 3 in the non-VEO group (p < 0.01). <i>Conclusions:</i> Several clinical outcomes are worse in patients with VEO-ADPKD compared to non-VEO ADPKD. Children with VEO-ADPKD represent a particularly high-risk group of ADPKD patients.