Supplementary Material for: Influence of Sleep Stage on LH Pulse Initiation in the Normal Late Follicular Phase and in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

<b><i>Objective:</i></b> During the early follicular phase, sleep-related luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse initiation is positively associated with brief awakenings but negatively associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The relationship between sleep architecture and LH pulse initiation has not been assessed in other cycle stages or in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). <b><i>Design and Methods:</i></b> We performed concomitant frequent blood sampling (LH pulse analysis) and polysomnography on 8 normal women (cycle day 7–11) and 7 women with PCOS (at least cycle day 7). <b><i>Results:</i></b> In the normal women, the 5 min preceding LH pulses contained more wake epochs and fewer REM epochs than the 5 min preceding randomly determined time points (wake: 22.3 vs. 9.1%, <i>p</i> = 0.0111; REM: 4.4 vs. 18.8%, <i>p</i> = 0.0162). However, LH pulse initiation was not related to wake or REM epochs in PCOS; instead, the 5 min preceding LH pulses contained more slow-wave sleep (SWS) than the 5 min before random time points (20.9 vs. 6.7%, <i>p</i> = 0.0089). Compared to the normal subjects, the women with PCOS exhibited a higher REM-associated LH pulse frequency (<i>p</i> = 0.0443) and a lower proportion of wake epochs 0–5 min before LH pulses (<i>p</i> = 0.0205). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Sleep-related inhibition of LH pulse generation during the later follicular phase is normally weakened by brief awakenings and strengthened by REM sleep. In women with PCOS, LH pulse initiation is not appropriately discouraged by REM sleep and may be encouraged by SWS; these abnormalities may contribute to a high sleep-related LH pulse frequency in PCOS.