Supplementary Material for: Influence of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Therapy on Bone Density and Geometry in Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Crohn's Disease Patients

<b><i>Background and Aims:</i></b> Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) induces remission in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated the short-term impact of EEN on bone quality and muscle mass in children with CD. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Ten newly diagnosed CD patients (7 male, 10.6-17.7 years of age) were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the forearm before starting an 8-weeks treatment with EEN, and after 12 and 52 weeks. No steroids or biologicals were applied. Trabecular and cortical bone mineral density, total bone, and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured by pQCT and expressed as age- and sex-specific z-scores; size-dependent CSAs were corrected for low height for age. Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Remission at week 12 was achieved in 8 patients; 2 still had mild disease. Initially low trabecular density z-scores improved (+0.3; p = 0.006) at week 12; simultaneously, the increased cortical density z-scores normalized (-0.4; p = 0.027). The low z-score for muscle CSA corrected for height (median -2.5, range -3.49 to -0.97) increased within 12 weeks (+1.0; p = 0.002) with no further improvement thereafter. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The results indicate disturbed bone remodeling and severely impaired muscle mass in newly diagnosed CD children. Bone metabolism and muscle mass improved within 3 months after starting EEN with no further normalization thereafter.