Supplementary Material for: Increased Serum Leptin Levels in New-Onset, Untreated Female Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Positively Associated with Inflammatory Markers

Background/Aims: Previous studies have suggested that leptin was associated with atherosclerosis and involved in inflammation. Gender differences between leptin and inflammatory markers have been evaluated less in untreated patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: In this study, a total of 394 consecutive Chinese patients who received coronary artery angiography were enrolled, including 243 patients with CAD and 151 non-CAD controls. The baseline clinical characteristics were collected and serum leptin levels were determined using ELISA. Results: The relation of serum leptin levels to inflammatory markers was found only in female patients. Leptin and white blood cell count (WBCC) as well as its subsets were significantly higher in female patients than female controls. In female patients, leptin was positively associated with C-reactive protein (CRP; r = 0.28, p = 0.016), WBCC (r = 0.261, p = 0.02), neutrophil, r = 0.268, p = 0.018, and monocyte, r = 0.228, p = 0.044. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that leptin was significantly and independently associated with CRP (β = 0.317, p = 0.004), WBCC (β = 0.278, p = 0.020), neutrophil (β = 0.262, p = 0.032), and monocyte (β = 0.245, p = 0.032). Conclusions: The serum leptin levels were higher in female patients and independently associated with CRP, WBCC, and its subsets, suggesting a potential interaction between leptin and inflammation in female CAD patients.