Supplementary Material for: Hoxa5 Promotes Adipose Differentiation via Increasing DNA Methylation Level and Inhibiting PKA/HSL Signal Pathway in Mice

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> Impaired adipogenesis may be the underlying cause in the development of obesity and type II diabetes. Mechanistically, the family of Homeobox transcription factors is implicated in the regulation of adipocyte fate. Hoxa5 is highly expressed in adipocytes, and its mRNA expression is decreased during differentiation. However, the function of Hoxa5 in adipose tissue has been poorly understood. The aim of this study is to unveil the role of Hoxa5 on adipocyte differentiation and its underlying mechanisms. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blot were performed to determine Hoxa5 expression in primary adipocytes and in adipose tissues from mice. Lipid accumulation was evaluated by bodipy staining. Dual luciferase assay was applied to explore the transcription factor of Hoxa5 and the transcriptional target gene modulated by Hoxa5. All measurements were performed at least for three times at least. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A significant reduction of Hoxa5 expression was observed in adipose tissue of High Fat Diet (HFD) induced obesity mice. We determined Hoxa5 increased adipocytes differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes <i>in vitro</i>. CEBPβ was determined a transcription factor of Hoxa5 and inhibited methylation level of Hoxa5 by combining on the promoter of Hoxa5. Importantly, we found Fabp4, a known positive regulator of adipocytes differentiation, was transcriptional activation by Hoxa5. In addition, Hoxa5 promotes adipocytes differentiation by inhibiting PKA/HSL pathway. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our study demonstrated the promoting role of Hoxa5 in adipocytes differentiation and therefore bringing a new therapeutic mean to the treatment of obesity and type II diabetes.