Supplementary Material for: High Diversity in CMA<sub>3</sub>/DAPI-Banding Patterns in Heteropterans

Heteroptera is the most numerous and diverse suborder of Hemiptera, with about 38,000 species. This diversity also involves cytogenetic features, including chromosome number and a sex determining system. Information about heterochromatin occurrence and distribution is scarce in heteropterans, but still, there is some evidence of variability. We determined the chromosome number and CMA<sub>3</sub>/DAPI-banding pattern of 179 individuals of 25 heteropteran species from Brazil. Eight species of Pentatomidae exhibited a constant chromosome number (2n = 12 + XY), but in Coreidae (12 species), Largidae (1 species), Rhopalidae (1 species), and Pyrrhocoridae (3 species), the numbers ranged from 2n = 10 + 2m + X0 to 2n = 24 + 2m + X0. Although there were no large differences in the chromosome size between species, the CMA<sub>3</sub>/DAPI-banding patterns differed markedly. Among the genera, species of <i>Edessa, Spartocera, Hypselonotus, Phtia,</i><i>Holhymenia</i> and <i>Euryophthalmus</i> showed a large accumulation of heterochromatin, while the other species exhibited few or no heterochromatic bands. In general, when heterochromatin was more accumulated, this occurred preferentially at terminal positions, except in <i>Holhymenia histrio</i>, which exhibited intercalary bands. This study made it possible to identify some chromosome rearrangements and to enhance our knowledge of the evolutionary mechanisms that determine karyotype differentiation in Heteroptera.