Supplementary Material for: High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Change of Cellular Metabolism Leads to Decreases of Immunity and Imbalance of Cellular Activities in Rumen Epithelium
2018-03-13T14:42:42Z (GMT) by
<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> In animals, the immune and cellular processes of tissue largely depend on the status of local metabolism. However, in the rumen epithelium, how the cellular metabolism affects epithelial immunity, and cellular processes, when the diet is switched from energy-rich to energy-excess status, with regard to animal production and health, have not as yet been reported. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> RNA-seq was applied to compare the biological processes altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 10% to 35% with those altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 35% to 65% (dietary concentrate: the non-grass component in diet, including corn, soya bean meal and additive. High concentrate diet composed of 35% grass, 55% corn, 8% soya bean meal and 2% additive). In addition to the functional analysis of enriched genes in terms of metabolism, the immune system, and cellular process, the highly correlated genes to the enriched metabolism genes were identified, and the function and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed neighbors were compared among the groups. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The variation trends of molar proportions of ruminal SCFAs and those of enriched pathways belonging to metabolism, immune system, and cellular process were altered with the change of diets. With regard to metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism were most affected. According to the correlation analysis, both innate and adaptive immune responses were promoted by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. However, the majority of immune responses were suppressed under the 35% concentrate diet. Moreover, the exclusive upregulation of cell growth and dysfunction of cellular transport and catabolism were induced by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. On the contrary, a balanced regulation of cellular processes was detected under the 35% concentrate diet. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> These results indicated that the alterations of cellular metabolism promote the alterations in cellular immunity, repair, and homeostasis in the rumen epithelium, thereby leading to the switch of concentrate effects from positive to negative with regard to animal production and health.