Supplementary Material for: HPV 16 E2 Protein Induces Apoptosis in Human and Murine HPV 16 Transformed Epithelial Cells and Has Antitumoral Effects in vivo

Objective: Our aims were to examine the ability of the human papillomaviruse (HPV) 16 E2 protein to induce apoptosis in a murine HPV-transformed cell line, and to evaluate its antitumor properties on HPV-associated tumors in vivo in immunocompetent mice. Methods: HPV-transformed murine BMK-16/myc cells and human SiHa cells were transfected with the HPV 16 E2 gene to examine the effects of the E2 protein on cell growth and on the E6 and E7 oncogenes as well as DNA fragmentation and activation of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Finally, to test the antitumor effect of the E2 protein on an experimental mouse tumor model, we generated a recombinant adenovirus expressing the E2 protein. Results: The E2 protein inhibited the growth of SiHa and BMK-16/myc cell lines, and repressed the E6 and E7 oncogenes. Moreover, the E2 protein induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis through activation of caspases 8 and 3 in BMK-16/myc cells. On the other hand, E2 also showed antitumor effects in vivo. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that E2 exerts pro-apoptotic activity in a murine HPV-transformed cell line as well as an antitumor effect in vivo.