Supplementary Material for: Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Longitudinal Growth in Early Life

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of childhood obesity, but little is known about its association with infant growth patterns. <b><i>Aim:</i></b> The aim of this study was to examine the association between GWG and infant growth patterns. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Pregnant women (n = 743) self-reported GWG at delivery, which we classified as inadequate, adequate or excessive based on the current guidelines. Offspring weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), length-for-age z-score (LAZ (with height-for-age (HAZ) in place of length at 36 months)) and body mass index z-score (BMIZ) were calculated at birth, 8, 18 and 36 months using the 2006 World Health Organization growth standards. Linear mixed models estimated the change in z-score from birth to 36 months by GWG. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The mean (SD) WAZ was -0.22 (1.20) at birth. Overall, WAZ and BMIZ increased from birth to, approximately, 24 months and decreased from 24 to 36 months, while LAZ/HAZ decreased from birth through 36 months. Excessive GWG was associated with higher offspring WAZ and BMIZ at birth, 8 and 36 months, and higher HAZ at 36 months, compared with adequate GWG. Compared with the same referent, inadequate GWG was associated with smaller WAZ and BMIZ at birth and 8 months. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Excessive GWG may predispose infants to obesogenic growth patterns, while inadequate GWG may not have a lasting impact on infant growth.