Supplementary Material for: Factors Associated with Gastric Black Spot, White Flat Elevated Mucosa, and Cobblestone-Like Mucosa: A Cross-Sectional Study

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> Previous studies have reported a possible relevance between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and 3 new gastric mucosal changes: black spots (BSs), white flat elevated mucosa (WFEM), and cobblestone-like mucosa (CLM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between these mucosal changes and multiple factors including PPI use. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> All subjects who underwent a routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) were successively enrolled. Endoscopists carried out the EGD after being blinded about ­information on patient PPI usage and determined the presence of these mucosal changes. The ratio of each factor was ­compared in cases with and without each gastric finding. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Out of 1,214 patients, BSs were recognized in 75 (6.2%) cases, WFEM in 59 (4.9%), and CLM in 41 (3.4%). In logistic regression analysis, PPI use was significantly correlated with all of these findings (BSs: OR 2.94; 95% CI 1.66–5.21), (WFEM: OR 3.58; 95% CI 1.94–6.61), and (CLM: OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.34–9.96), and <i>Helicobacter pylori</i> eradication was related to BSs (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.73–5.24) and WFEM (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.08–4.11). Decision-tree analyses showed that <i>H. pylori</i> eradication was associated with all findings. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> All of the considered findings were correlated with PPI and <i>H. pylori</i> eradication.