Supplementary Material for: Extreme Surgical Maneuvers in Fungal Endophthalmitis

<b><i>Purpose:</i></b> To present the different evolution of 2 cases of endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium solani, an aggressive filamentous fungus, depending on the medical and surgical treatment performed. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We present 2 cases of endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium solani. Topical, intrastromal, intravitreal, and systemic antifungal treatment (natamycin, voriconazole, amphotericin B) failed in both cases. Corneal perforation took place in one of them, being unsuccessfully treated with cyanoacrylate and several amniotic membrane transplants. It became necessary to perform a hot penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in both patients. The lenses were removed, and the microbiological analysis showed their colonization by Fusarium solani. In one of the cases, a second PK and a more aggressive pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) were performed after corneal recurrence detected by confocal microscopy, as well as the following therapeutic intra- and postoperative maneuvers: anterior chamber washing with povidone-iodine 5% for 1 min; iridectomy of the infiltrated regions; aspiration of the fungal colonies with vitrector; several air/fluid/amphotericin/voriconazole exchanges during PPV; endodiathermy and endophotocoagulation of the chorioretinitis foci; and intrascleral angle injections of voriconazole and amphotericin. <b><i>Results:</i></b> These were the only cases of endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium attended to at our hospital during the last 10 years. In the case in which PPV was performed without those maneuvers, endophthalmitis rapidly recurred in a more aggressive way, so finally it became necessary to eviscerate the globe. On the other hand, in the patient who underwent PPV with the specific surgical maneuvers and postoperative procedures described above, we could preserve the eye and even a vision of hand motion without an intraocular lens. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The main objectives of these surgical procedures are to control the fungal infection and to preserve the ocular globe. It is essential to eliminate all ocular structures (iris, lens, vitreous, etc.) affected by this strain of fungus in order to reduce the risk of recurrence. When indicated, early surgery with the appropriate maneuvers detailed above may make an evisceration unnecessary and even recover some visual acuity.

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