Supplementary Material for: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Basilar-Membrane Travelling Wave and Frequency Place Coding of Sound in Cochlear Implant Recipients

<i>Aim:</i> To obtain direct evidence for the cochlear travelling wave in humans by performing electrocochleography from within the cochlea in subjects implanted with an auditory prosthesis. <i>Background:</i> Sound induces a travelling wave that propagates along the basilar membrane, exhibiting cochleotopic tuning with a frequency-dependent phase delay. To date, evoked potentials and psychophysical experiments have supported the presence of the travelling wave in humans, but direct measurements have not been made. <i>Methods:</i> Electrical potentials in response to rarefaction and condensation acoustic tone bursts were recorded from multiple sites along the human cochlea, directly from a cochlear implant electrode during, and immediately after, its insertion. These recordings were made from individuals with residual hearing. <i>Results:</i> Electrocochleography was recorded from 11 intracochlear electrodes in 7 ears from 6 subjects, with detectable responses on all electrodes in 5 ears. Cochleotopic tuning and frequency-dependent phase delay of the cochlear microphonic were demonstrated. The response latencies were slightly shorter than those anticipated which we attribute to the subjects' hearing loss. <i>Conclusions:</i> Direct evidence for the travelling wave was observed. Electrocochleography from cochlear implant electrodes provides site-specific information on hair cell and neural function of the cochlea with potential diagnostic value.