Supplementary Material for: Effects of Recombinant Human Leptin (Metreleptin) on Nocturnal Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Lipodystrophy Patients

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Leptin replacement in patients with leptin gene mutations improves hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The effects of leptin replacement on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in patients with lipodystrophy are unknown. <b><i>Aim:</i></b> We examined nocturnal LH secretory dynamics on and off exogenous leptin therapy using a 2-period, nonrandomized study that included leptin-naïve and leptin-treated subjects with lipodystrophy. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> In period 1 (5 days) the leptin-treated group (n = 4) continued leptin; leptin was then withdrawn for the next 14 days (period 2). Leptin-naïve subjects (n = 8) were studied without leptin in period 1 and with leptin replacement in period 2. LH secretory dynamics were assessed (23:00-07:00 h, sampling every 10 min, analyzed by multiparameter deconvolution algorithm) at the end of each period. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Mean (on vs. off: 5.0 ± 3.1 vs. 3.2 ± 1.3 IU/l, p = 0.04) and integrated LH concentrations (2,403 ± 1,495 vs. 1,534 ± 642 IU × l<sup>-1</sup> × min<sup>-1</sup>, p = 0.04) were higher on leptin therapy. Leptin treatment increased burst mass (9.7± 15.4 vs. 7.0 ± 11.2 IU/l, p = 0.03) and tended to nonsignificantly increase LH burst frequency (0.77 ± 0.26 vs. 0.67 ± 0.24 h<sup>-1</sup>, p = 0.08). Consequently, leptin therapy increased the pulsatile production rate (64 ± 101 vs. 57 ± 73 IU × l<sup>-1</sup> × 8 h<sup>-1</sup>, p = 0.01). On leptin, testosterone (507 ± 286 vs. 360 ± 174 ng/dl, p = 0.09) and estradiol levels (74 ± 36 vs. 29 ± 24 pg/ml, p = 0.01) were higher in males and females, respectively. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Leptin increases spontaneous nocturnal LH secretion in patients with lipodystrophy. This is consistent with rodent and in vitro studies showing a direct stimulatory effect (hypothalamic, pituitary or both) of leptin on LH secretion. These novel findings may explicate some of the salutary effects of leptin therapy on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in lipodystrophy.

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